Most door closer manufacturers claim a door closer that has a range of 0 - 180º. So let’s keep this conversation to a rack and pinion type of closer with a conventional scissor arm, for example ref http://www.sws-eu.com/products/standard-arm-closer/3643/ (rather than a guide rail or slide arm closer, which at best will reach to 160º).
So assuming the requirement is to fit the door closer body to the pull face of the door (known as fig 1 application) in the usual way. It’s not easy to give an exact answer due to layout of the door and frame and hinges, but main point to remember is
you will need to allow space for the body to clear behind the door and also of course, the pull handles.
You can achieve this by using projection hinges to overcome architrave, skirting or pipework which may all need to be overcome or at the extreme… cut a pocket in the wall for the closer body to hide into. So essentially each situation does need special consideration and of course the design can be challenged ‘do we really need to go 180º?'
For example, on the scenario shown above, the architect for this new school building wanted these four doors to swing back and line up flush to the wall to eliminate an obstruction for a child to collide with. The closers needed to be hidden behind the doors when fully opened. So we supplied projection hinges to allow the doors to throw back to 180deg and allow clearance for the closer body and the pull handles. These doors also had to electro-mag hold open for release on activation of the fire alarm ~ but that’s another story!
Remember to choose a slimline body closer if you’re tight for space.
Alternatively you can fit the closer in the fig 66 application, (that is the body fixed to the push face of the door) but it is an unsightly application that is usually avoided, because it will be vulnerable to damage when the door is open as all the arm linkage is so visible, to further complicate things, you may need to order long reach arms to overcome the distance the arm has to stretch to.